Lara Benfatto


Leggett mode controlled by light pulses

March 2019

The discovery of symmetry-broken phases that host multiple order parameters, such as multiband superconductors, has triggered an enormous interest in condensed matter physics. However, many challenges continue to hinder the fundamental understanding of how to control the collective modes corresponding to these multiple order parameters. In particular, the advent of THz spectroscopy with the use of very intense pulsed field paved the way to new protocols to detect these collective electronic excitations. In a recent paper published in Nature Physics we demonstrate that, in full analogy with phonons, Raman-active electronic collective modes can be manipulated by intense light pulses. By tuning a sum-frequency excitation process, we selectively trigger a collective mode that we identify with the one corresponding to the relative phase fluctuations between two superconducting order parameters—the so-called Leggett mode—in the multiband superconductor MgB2. The excellent comparison between experiments and theory is made possible but a step-to-step theoretical description of the full pump-probe protocols, that was lacking so far for these kind of experiments. On this respect, besides providing the first experimental evidence of the THz-induced excitation of the Leggett mode, we establishes a general protocol for the advanced control of Raman-active electronic modes in symmetry-broken quantum phases of matter.


Left: schematic of the two-photon absorption by the pump field in typical pump-probe experiments, where the probe signal is recorded at a fixed observation time tgate as a function of the pump-probe delay tpp between the pump and probe field. Right: experimental observation of the Leggett oscillations, compared with theoretical simulations

Hexatic phases in MoGe thin films

January 2019

According to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless theory, later refined by Halperin, Nelson and Young, the melting of a 2D solid crystal should happen via two subsequent transitions controlled by topological excitations. At the first transition thermally excited free dislocations proliferate in the lattice breaking the lattice rigidity but preserving its orientational order. At higher temperatures the emergence of isolated disclinations suppressed the remnant orientational order leading to a conventional, isotropic fluid. The melting of the vortex lattice in thin films of type II superconductors belong to the BKTHNY universality class. The intermediate phase is called hexatic since the orientationally-ordered liquid state is expected to have the hexagonal symmetry of the vortex lattice in the crystalline phase. In a recent paper published in Phys. Rev. Lett. we used a combination of transport measurements and STM imaging of the vortex lattice to demonstrate the existence of a hexatic phase in thin films of MoGe. Beside standard static characterization of the orientational liquid, we investigated its time evolution: by visualizing via STM the vortex lattice at regular time steps we proved that the vortexes in the hexatic fluid phase move, due to internal stress, along preferantial directions corresponding to hexgonal order.


(a) Field dependence of the resistivity and of the hexatic order parameter at 2K (b) Field dependence of the resistivity in the vortex-liquid phase at various temperature. (c) Resulting phase diagram of a-MoGe obtained by combining transport and  STS measurements of the vortex lattice.