Indeed, there is no need to treat systematic effects in a special way. They are treated as any of the many input quantities discussed in Sec. 3.2, and, in fact, their asymmetric contributions come frequently from their nonlinear influence on the quantity of interest. The only word of caution, on which I would like to insist, is to use expected value and standard deviation for each systematic effect. In fact, sometimes the uncertainty about the value of the influence quantities that contribute to systematics is intrinsically asymmetric.

I also would like to comment shortly on results where
either of the is negative,
for example
(see e.g. Ref. [1]
to have an idea of the variety of signs of ). This means
that that the we are in proximity of a minimum (or a maximum
if were negative) of the function .
It can be shown [2,3] that
Eqs. (21)-(22)
hold for this case too.^{13}

For further details about meaning and treatment of
uncertainties due systematics and their relations
to ISO *Type B* uncertainties[14], see
Refs. [2] and [3].